# Reference

### Math

 abs() Calculates the absolute value (magnitude) of a number atan2() Calculates the angle (in radians) from a specified point to the coordinate origin as measured from the positive x-axis ceil() Calculates the closest int value that is greater than or equal to the value of the parameter constrain() Constrains a value to not exceed a maximum and minimum value cos() Calculates the cosine of an angle dist() Calculates the distance between two points lerp() Calculates a number between two numbers at a specific increment mag() Calculates the magnitude (or length) of a vector map() Re-maps a number from one range to another max() Determines the largest value in a sequence of numbers, and then returns that value min() Determines the smallest value in a sequence of numbers, and then returns that value noise() Returns the Perlin noise value at specified coordinates norm() Normalizes a number from another range into a value between 0 and 1 pow() Facilitates exponential expressions PVector A class to describe a two or three dimensional vector, specifically a Euclidean (also known as geometric) vector radians() Converts a degree measurement to its corresponding value in radians random() Generates random numbers randomGaussian() Returns a float from a random series of numbers having a mean of 0 and standard deviation of 1 sin() Calculates the sine of an angle sq() Squares a number (multiplies a number by itself) sqrt() Calculates the square root of a number

### Shape

 arc() Draws an arc to the screen beginShape() Using the beginShape() and endShape() functions allow creating more complex forms bezier() Draws a Bezier curve on the screen bezierVertex() Specifies vertex coordinates for Bezier curves ellipse() Draws an ellipse (oval) to the screen ellipseMode() Modifies the location from which ellipses are drawn by changing the way in which parameters given to ellipse() are intepreted endShape() The endShape() function is the companion to beginShape() and may only be called after beginShape() line() Draws a line (a direct path between two points) to the screen point() Draws a point, a coordinate in space at the dimension of one pixel PShape Datatype for storing shapes quad() A quad is a quadrilateral, a four sided polygon rect() Draws a rectangle to the screen rectMode() Modifies the location from which rectangles are drawn by changing the way in which parameters given to rect() are intepreted strokeCap() Sets the style for rendering line endings strokeWeight() Sets the width of the stroke used for lines, points, and the border around shapes triangle() A triangle is a plane created by connecting three points vertex() All shapes are constructed by connecting a series of vertices

### Color

 background() The background() function sets the color used for the background of the Processing window color() Creates colors for storing in variables of the color datatype colorMode() Changes the way Processing interprets color data fill() Sets the color used to fill shapes lerpColor() Calculates a color between two colors at a specific increment noFill() Disables filling geometry noStroke() Disables drawing the stroke (outline) stroke() Sets the color used to draw lines and borders around shapes

### Data

 byte Datatype for bytes, 8 bits of information storing numerical values from 127 to -128 float Data type for floating-point numbers, e int Datatype for integers, numbers without a decimal point

### Image

 copy() Copies a region of pixels from the display window to another area of the display window and copies a region of pixels from an image used as the srcImg parameter into the display window createImage() Creates a new PImage (the datatype for storing images) get() Reads the color of any pixel or grabs a section of an image image() The image() function draws an image to the display window loadPixels() Loads a snapshot of the current display window into the pixels[] array set() Changes the color of any pixel, or writes an image directly to the display window updatePixels() Updates the display window with the data in the pixels[] array

### Rendering

 createGraphics() Creates and returns a new PGraphics object

### Structure

 . (dot) Provides access to an object's methods and data draw() Called directly after setup(), the draw() function continuously executes the lines of code contained inside its block until the program is stopped or noLoop() is called loop() By default, Processing loops through draw() continuously, executing the code within it noLoop() Stops Processing from continuously executing the code within draw() redraw() Executes the code within draw() one time setup() The setup() function is run once, when the program starts super Keyword used to reference the superclass of a subclass

### Control

 for Controls a sequence of repetitions if Allows the program to make a decision about which code to execute

### Environment

 frameRate The system variable frameRate contains the approximate frame rate of a running sketch noSmooth() Draws all geometry and fonts with jagged (aliased) edges and images when hard edges between the pixels when enlarged rather than interpoloating pixels size() Defines the dimension of the display window width and height in units of pixels

### Input

 hour() Processing communicates with the clock on your computer keyPressed() The keyPressed() function is called once every time a key is pressed keyTyped() The keyTyped() function is called once every time a key is pressed, but action keys such as Ctrl, Shift, and Alt are ignored millis() Returns the number of milliseconds (thousandths of a second) since starting the program minute() Processing communicates with the clock on your computer mouseDragged() The mouseDragged() function is called once every time the mouse moves while a mouse button is pressed mousePressed() The mousePressed() function is called once after every time a mouse button is pressed mouseReleased() The mouseReleased() function is called every time a mouse button is released mouseX The system variable mouseX always contains the current horizontal coordinate of the mouse mouseY The system variable mouseY always contains the current vertical coordinate of the mouse second() Processing communicates with the clock on your computer

### Transform

 popMatrix() Pops the current transformation matrix off the matrix stack pushMatrix() Pushes the current transformation matrix onto the matrix stack rotate() Rotates the amount specified by the angle parameter scale() Increases or decreases the size of a shape by expanding and contracting vertices translate() Specifies an amount to displace objects within the display window

### Output

 println() The println() function writes to the console area, the black rectangle at the bottom of the Processing environment

### Typography

 text() Draws text to the screen textAlign() Sets the current alignment for drawing text textAscent() Returns ascent of the current font at its current size textDescent() Returns descent of the current font at its current size textFont() Sets the current font that will be drawn with the text() function textSize() Sets the current font size textWidth() Calculates and returns the width of any character or text string